Las conclusiones sobre el CT Scan a la momia de Tutanjamon: Tutanjamon no
PRUEBAS CIENTIFICAS IMPIDEN DETERMINAR ASESINATO DE TUTANKAMON
EL CAIRO, 8 (ANSA) - Las pruebas científicas realizadas al cuerpo momificado del faraón Tutankamón, quien ascendió al trono a los 9 años y
murió cuando tenía menos de 19, impiden determinar si fue asesinado, anunció hoy el Consejo Superior de la Antigüedad en El Cairo.
La momia de Tutankamón, quien perteneció a la 19 dinastía egipcia, hace3.300 años, fue sometida a estudios con recursos de computación hace dos
meses. El secretario general del Consejo, Zahi Hawas, sostuvo que el estudio,
con 1.700 imágenes tomadas por un tomógrafo móvil, bajo supervisión de tres expertos, dos italianos y un suizo, no permitió encontrar pruebas que
justifiquen la hipótesis de asesinato. El estudio estableció que los descubridores de la tumba en 1922, el
arqueólogo Howard Carter y el británico Lord Carnarvon, quien financió las tareas, dividieron en partes a la momia para investigaciones científicas,
pero también para recuperar piezas del tesoro, hoy expuesto en el Museo Egipcio de El Cairo.
- CSI Egipto - El "Asesinato" disputado del Rey Tut -
CSI: Egypt - King Tut's 'murder' disputed
The results of a CT scan done on King Tutankhamun's mummy indicate the boy king was not murdered, but may have suffered a badly broken leg shortly
before his death at age 19 - a wound that could have become infected, Egypt's top archaeologist said yesterday.
Zahi Hawass announced the results of the CT scan about two months after itwas performed on Tut's mummy.
Hawass said the remains of Tutankhamun, who ruled about 3300 years ago, showed no signs that he had been murdered - dispelling a mystery that has
long surrounded the pharaoh's death. "In answer to theories that Tutankhamun was murdered, the team found no
evidence for a blow to the back of the head, and no other indication of foul play," according to a statement released yesterday by Egyptian authorities.
"They also found it extremely unlikely that he suffered an accident in which he crushed his chest."
Hawass said some members of the Egyptian-led research team, which included two Italian experts and one from Switzerland,
interpreted a fracture to Tut's left thighbone as evidence that the king may have broken his leg badly
just before he died. "However, this part of the team believes it also possible, although less
likely, that this fracture was caused by the embalmers." Some 1700 images were taken of Tut's mummy during the 15-minute CT scan
aimed at answering many of the mysteries that shrouded his life and death - including his royal lineage, his exact age at the time of his death and the
reason he died. Tutankhamun is believed to have been the 12th ruler of ancient Egypt's 18th
dynasty. He ascended to the throne at about the age of 8 and died around 1323 BC.
Fuente: Fairfax Digital
Tests Show King Tut Was Not Murdered
- Análisis muestran que el Rey Tut no fue asesinado -
CAIRO, Egypt - The results of a CT scan done on King Tut's mummy indicate the boy king was not murdered, but may have suffered a badly broken legshortly before his death at age 19 _ a wound that could have become
infected, Egypt's top archaeologist said Tuesday. Zahi Hawass, secretary general if the Supreme Council of Antiquities,
announced the results of the CT scan about two months after it was performed on Tut's mummy.
Hawass said the remains of Tutankhamun, who ruled about 3,300 years ago, showed no signs that he had been murdered _ dispelling a mystery that has
long surrounded the pharaoh's death. "In answer to theories that Tutankhamun was
murdered, the team found no evidence for a blow to the back of the head, and no other indication of foul
play," according to a statement released Tuesday by Egyptian authorities. "They also found it extremely unlikely that he suffered an accident in which
he crushed his chest." Hawass said some members of the Egyptian-led research team,
which included two Italian experts and one from Switzerland, interpreted a fracture to
Tut's left thighbone as evidence that the king may have broken his leg badly
just before he died. "Although the break itself would not have been life-threatening, infection
might have set in," the statement said. "However, this part of the team believes it also
possible, although less likely, that this fracture was caused by the embalmers."
Some 17,000 images were taken of Tut's mummy during the 15-minute CT scan aimed at answering many of the mysteries that shrouded his life and death _
including his royal lineage, his exact age at the time of his death and the reason he died.
"I believe these results will close the case of Tutankhamun, and the king will not need to be examined again," Hawass said. "We should now leave him
at rest. I am proud that this work was done, and done well, by a completely Egyptian team."
Tutankhamun's short life has fascinated people since his tomb was discovered in 1922 in the fabled Valley
of the Kings in the southern Egyptian city of Luxor by a British archaeologist, Howard Carter. The find revealed a trove
of fabulous treasures in gold and precious stones that showed the wealth and craftsmanship of the Pharaonic court
Hawass had long refused to allow DNA testing on Tut's remains and only agreed to perform a noninvasive CT
scan on the mummy, which has since been returned to its tomb. The CT machine was brought from Germany and donated by
Siemens and National Geographic. The study, which was the first CT scan on a member of Egypt's ancient
royalty, showed that Tut was of a slight build, well-fed and healthy and suffered no major childhood
malnutrition or infectious diseases. The boy king also had a slight cleft palate, which was not however
associated with an external expression, like a hair-lip, or other facial deformities. He also had large incisor teeth and the typical overbite
characteristic of other kings from his family. His lower teeth were also slightly misaligned.
Ruled out also were pathological causes for Tut's bent spine and elongated skull, which had been noted in earlier examinations. His head shape appeared
normal and spine was bent as a result of how royal embalmers had positioned
his body. Tut's lineage also has long been in question. It's unclear if he is the son
or a half brother of Akhenaten, the "heretic" pharaoh who introduced a revolutionary form of monotheism to ancient Egypt and who was the son of
Amenhotep III. He is believed to have been the 12th ruler of ancient Egypt's 18th dynasty
and ascended to the throne at about the age of 8 and died around 1323 B.C.
Fuente: Porterville Recorder
Otras direcciones que tratan sobre lo mismo:
El escáner retrata la momia del sarcófago dorado
El arqueólogo egipcio Zahi Hawass ha dirigido la exploración radiológica que permitirá conocer algunos misterios que rodean a Tutankamón
El egiptólogo Zahi Hawass ha sometido al escáner la momia del faraón Tutankamón, lo que permitirá analizar numerosos aspectos que rodean a la historia del joven
gobernante. Por lo pronto se intenta poner en cuestión la legendaria "maldición de los faraones". Hawass, de todas formas, todavía no ha querido desterrar el mito de los terribles sucesos de los que son víctimas quienes toman contacto con los restos. "No puedo eludir la leyenda de la maldición porque nos han
pasado muchas cosas. Nuestro equipo casi ha estado a punto de sufrir un importante accidente con el coche que nos trasladaba, el viento sopló fortísimamente en el Valle de los Reyes y el ordenador de la exploración de tomografía estuvo estropeado por completo durante dos horas" relató Hawass en un vídeo
hecho público ayer viernes, tras la conclusión del trabajo. Un equipo egipcio ha efectuado la exploración con escáner de la momia en el propio Valle de los Reyes, al sur de Luxor, el pasado miércoles por la tarde, en una tentativa de averiguar cómo falleció el joven Tutankamón, uno de los misterios más
importantes de la historia del Egipto antiguo. Los análisis se extenderán durante tres semanas a cargo de expertos.
Hawass, a la sazón secretario general del Consejo Supremo de Antiguedades de Egipto, también ha acusado al descubridor de la tumba en 1923, el británico Howard Carter, de haber dañadoirreparablemente la momia del faraón. El arqueólogo hizo la acusación en su inspección tras abrir el sarcófago dorado, que permanecía sellado desde que fuera inspeccionado en 1986 por una misión arqueológica británica.
Según precisó Hawass, "sólo la cabeza de la momia está en buen estado, ya queel resto del cuerpo se encuentra en muy malas condiciones debido a los intentos de Carter de remover la mascara de oro de la cara del cadáver". A su vez responsabilizó también al descubridor de "abusar de la momia, al introducir en ella hierros calientes para tratar de localizar las piedras preciosas y los
amuletos que habían sido colocados entre los vendajes que envolvían el cuerpo".
Tutankamón, de la XVIII Dinastía y que falleció cuando tenía unos 18 años en torno al 1350 antes de Cristo. Su mandato, que pasó sin pena ni gloria, debe su fama a que su ajuar fúnebre permaneció intacto hasta nuestros tiempos.
Fue el único monarca enterrado en el Valle de los Reyes, en el Alto Egipto, cuya tumba no fue saqueada, por lo que el descubrimiento de Carter causó sensación en su época.
Desde entonces, el ajuar y el tesoro encontrados por Carter en el enterramiento figuran entre los principales atractivos del
Museo Egipcio de El Cairo, donde son visitados a diario por miles de turistas, incluida la famosa máscara de oro. Hawass, conocido por sus punzantes críticas al expolio por extranjeros del patrimonio histórico del Antiguo Egipto, está considerado la máxima autoridad local en egiptología. Este examen de la momia deTutankamón tiene en principio el propósito de desentrañar el origen de la leyenda negra que rodea a ese faraón desde que varias de las personas que entraron con Carter hace mas de 80 años en la tumba murieron poco después por causas aparentemente inexplicables hasta la fecha.
La leyenda asegura que "la maldición de los faraones" recayó sobre todos los que estuvieron presentes en la apertura de la tumba de Tutankamón en febrero de 1923. El mito se originó cuando el patrocinador de la expedición, Lord Carnarvon, a raíz de la picadura de un mosquito, murió a consecuencia de una enfermedad conocida como
erysipelas, encadenándose los fallecimientos.
Diario de Cádiz
Tutankhamun: So who was the golden boy?
A new exhibition of artefacts from Tutankhamun's tomb is coming to London. Only now are we starting to unravel the mysteries of the boy-king, reports Michael Ridley
"At first, I could see nothing, the hot air escaping from the chamber causing my candle flame to flicker, but presently, as my eyes grew
accustomed to the light, details of the room within emerged slowly from the mist, strange animals, statues and gold - everywhere the glint of gold."With these words, Howard Carter described his first glimpse of the greatest archaeological discovery ever made. Nothing before nor since has equalled the splendour
and magnificence of the tomb of Tutankhamun, a minor pharaoh of 18th-dynasty Egypt.
Until November 1922, when Howard Carter together with his sponsor, Earl Carnarvon, entered his sealed burial chamber in the Valley of the Kings, no one was even sure that Tutankhamun had existed. His name was absent
from the ancient chronicle lists of Egyptian kings and only a few fragmentary inscriptions bearing his name had ever been found.
However, that all changed when the amazing news of the discovery and contents of the tomb spread world-wide. The tomb proved to have been almost untouched and was a time capsule
of ancient Egyptian art. But it was perhaps the gold that captured the public's imagination. Never before had such riches been seen - three golden coffins, one of solid gold and perhaps most amazing of all, a magnificent gold funerary mask.
Apart from the opulence of the treasures, the tomb had wonderfullypreserved evidence of the everyday things that Tutankhamun, his family and the court would have been familiar with. In numerous chests and boxes were clothes, and other personal items. The clothes were not of gold thread or silk but of fine linen, in simple styles, with cosmetics - which both men and
women would have used, and toiletries, such has a copper handled razors and ewers.
Evidence of the funeral feast and the baskets of food intended to accompany Tutankhamun on his journey through the nether world give an insight into the dietary habits of the King and his court. These in turn give us an idea of
the diet of the time, scaling down according to status. Bread and cakes were discovered as well as quantities of raw grain as well as the ingredients to make beer.In the ante-chamber of the tomb was the ancient equivalent of tinned beef in two-piece whitened boxes, along with meat from cattle, sheep, ducks,
geese as well as legumes, pulses, spices, fruit, nuts and honey. Evidence was also discovered of wine, identified in a recent study as red.
Millions of people have made their way to Egypt to see the Tutankhamun treasures, now in Cairo. And touring exhibitions, such as one containing 50 objects from the tombwhich is due to go on show at the Millennium Dome in London in 2007, draw huge crowds.
Although the treasures of Tutankhamun have made this young King known world wide, we really know little about his life. We are not even sure who his parents were. Indeed, his parentage is a subject which keeps
scholars busy supplying a steady stream of new theories. Since the discovery of his tomb in 1922, however, research has brought to light some intriguing facts which have begun to paint a picture of his life.
Perhaps the most convincing and currently acceptable theory about his parentage is that he was the son of
the heretic Pharaoh Akhenaten. His mother was not Akhenaten's famous wife, Nefertiti, but probably a minor wife of the King. Another theory makes Tutankhamun the son of the Pharaoh Amenophis III and his queen, Tiye, and thus a half brother of Akhenaten.
Whoever his parents were, it is certain that he was a member of the Royal House of Amarna, and that his claim to the throne was strong enough for him to succeed as Pharaoh of all Egypt in about 1333 BC, when he was only nine years old.
His relationship to the heretic King Akhenaten almost certainly caused the downfall and death of Tutankhamun. For his short
reign of about nine years seems to have been taken up with rectifying the chaos and errors bequeathed to him by Akhenaten.Tutankhamun or as he was first called Tutankhaten, was born in a time of great change and upheaval. The 18th Dynasty of Egypt had, until the reign of Akhenaten, been a prosperous one.
The pharaohs had been great warriors. They had added to their country's wealth, and to Egypt's territories, from which came valuable minerals and particularly gold.
Akhenaten was the complete opposite of these early kings. He was a dreamer not a warrior, a philosopher more interested in theoretical theology and
the arts than in mastering the art of kingship. He brought great changes to a conservative land. He introduced the worship of the sun-disc, the Aten, as the official religion, removing the royal patronage from the god and priests of Amun. He moved the capital from Thebes to a new site 240 miles to the north, which
he called Akhetaten "The Horizon of the Aten". However, Akhenaten neglected to secure Egypt's borders, and chaos broke out, vassal princes broke away and the economy fell into ruins. Thus at his death, he had the establishment, the old priesthood, and the people against him. It was against this background
that Tutankhamun succeeded to the throne. In line with Egyptian tradition, the young Tutankhamun secured his position by marrying his half sister (or sister or niece, depending on which theory of his birth is correct) Ankhesenpaaten, the third daughter of Akhenaten and Nefertiti.
His first three years were spent at Akhetaten, during which time his relative, Ay, ruling as regent, tried to rectify the errors perpetrated by Akhenaten. To return the country to stability, it was necessary to restore the old order. Eventually during the third year of Tutankhamun's reign the court re-established itself at Thebes, where the young King was
crowned. The old religion of Amun was restored and the King changed his name from Tutankhaten to Tutankhamun, his wife changing her name from Ankhesenpaaten to Ankhesenamun.
For the next few years, attempts were made to put right everything that the pharaoh Akhenaten had done wrong. Egypt
gradually settled back into some resemblance of stability. We have little evidence of what really went on at the time. But suddenly, and quite unexpectedly, it is thought in the young King's 18th year, Tutankhamun died. How and why, is a mystery, but circumstantial evidence points to murder.The mummy of
Tutankhamun was anatomically examined on 11 November 1925. The autopsy by Douglas Derry, the Professor of Anatomy at the Egyptian University, created a macabre scene.
The mummy was intact, although not in as good a condition as was hoped. Few royal mummies survive today which have not at some
time or other been rifled by robbers, who have torn the wrappings and left the corpses damaged and exposed to the atmosphere.
The first problems soon became apparent as the magnificent gold death mask which covered Tutankhamun's head, shoulders and part of his chest was stuck to the bottom of the coffin
in which they had rested for so long. This was due to unguents which had been poured over the mummy after it had been placed in the coffin, which with the passing of time had dried to a stony hardness.
The linen bandages were in a fragile condition and crumbled at the slightest touch. It proved impossible to
unwrap the mummy layer by layer as had been hoped. They had to cut the bandages.
Enclosed in the many layers of wrappings were a vast number of personal and mystical ornaments. The King lay with his arms across his body, each covered from the elbow to the wrist with bracelets of gold, silver and
semi-precious stones. It was not until the greater part of the bandages had been removed, that Tutankhamun's remains could be lifted from the coffin.
The bandages that covered the head of the King seemed to be in a better state of preservation. The removal of the final bandage from the King's face was a delicate
operation, as the danger of damaging the King's features was uppermost in Dr Derry's mind.
The face of the young pharaoh, whose reign had ended over 3,000 years earlier, was then revealed. A serene, refined and cultured face, it had well formed features and lips clearly marked. His skin was brittle and cracked.
His eyes were partly open and had in no way been interfered with, except to be covered with fabric impregnated with resin.
Dr Derry concluded that Tutankhamun would have been between 18 and 20 when he died. But there was no visible clue as to whether or not he had met his death naturally.
The first indication that something was amiss did not come until the King was x-rayed in his tomb in 1968 by a team led by Professor Ronald Harrison of Liverpool University.
X-rays of his skull suggested that Tutankhamun may have suffered a severe blow to the head. Harrison observed a small piece of bone in the left side of the
skull cavity. While noting it could be part of the ethmoid bone which had become dislodged from the nose when an instrument was passed up the nose into the cranial cavity during the embalming process. He suggested that the piece of bone may also have fused with the overlying skull which would be consistent
with a depressed fracture which had healed. This could mean that Tutankhamun died from a brain haemorrhage caused by a blow to his skull from a blunt instrument.
The wound, however, showed some signs of healing, and thus early observers have dismissed it. It now seems probable that this healing could have taken place while Tutankhamun was in a coma, and that the blow was sufficient to have killed him. Whether the blow was sustained by accident or by intent cannot
Forensic examination of Tutankhamun's mummy has thrown little light on the probable cause of death. More evidence is needed.
Computer tomography scans were carried out on Tut's mummy in December last year.
It was removed from its resting place within the stone sarcophagus in the tomb, and subjected to
a detailed scan. The scan organised by Zahi Hawass, the secretary-general of Egypt's Supreme Council of Antiquities was carried out in a specially equipped van in the Valley of the Kings.The results are awaited with some excitement but it is unlikely that they will provide much in the way of new evidence. At best,
they will be able throw more light on the x-rays and clarify whether Tutankhamun died from a blow to the head. What they will probably not be able to do is to indicate whether the King died from an accident or whether he died as a result of a deliberate blow.
What is really needed is more evidence on his parentage which could come from DNA tests on his mummy and the other Amarna royal mummies.
Circumstantial evidence, however, suggests that the young King, undoubtedly influenced by his early years at the court of Akhenaten, may have shown signs of moving his policies more in line with those of his predecessor.
This would have been sufficient to cause alarm, not only to the court but also to the priesthood, and it may have been to prevent chaos returning to Egypt that Tutankhamun was killed.
What is clear is that Tutankhamun died unexpectedly and without heirs. His tomb was unfinished and it seems that he was buried
in a tomb originally intended for Ay. Nothing fires the public's imagination like the discovery of gold treasure or a good mystery. Tut provides both.
Dr Michael Ridley is director of the Tutankhamun Exhibition in Dorchester.
The Independent on line
High-tech murder mystery.
Tut gets a CT scan, but that's not new for Milwaukee mummies
For 15 minutes, the fragile, mummified body of King Tut was sliced and diced in the back of a van - by a CT scan.
Zahi Hawass (center), Egypt's chief archaeologist, checks the 3,300-year-old mummy of King Tutankhamen this month at his tomb in Luxor, Egypt. A CT scan was then performed in a van outside with the hope of discovering whether Tut was murdered.
But while the international media was abuzz about the king's foray into high technology, Carter Lupton, an Egyptologist at the Milwaukee Public Museum, was shrugging his shoulders.He's been using CT-scan technology on mummies for decades.
And he's not sure that the manner of Tut's death will be revealed with such technology.
Just like the phrase "there's more than one way to skin a cat," Lupton said there's more than one way for a person to die. In fact, there are hundreds of ways - and not all of them will be picked up by a CT scan.
For instance, if King Tut was poisoned, the 1,700 images the CT scan compiled probably wouldn't show it.
"I don't know if they're going to determine the cause at all," he said. Archaeologists have long wondered whether Tut was murdered. An X-ray done 36 years ago showed bone fragments inside the skull of Tut, who was buried in a "hurried" fashion in a glitter of gold treasures, said Zahi Hawass, Egypt's chief archaeologist.Unfortunately, that
previous test wasn't sophisticated enough to determine whether the bone fragments signified a blow to the head.
"Even if they dismiss the wound at the back of his head" as a murderous blow, Lupton said, "that still doesn't mean he wasn't murdered."
Another factor contributing to the speculation was the state of the tomb. The "hurried" condition in which it appeared has led some archaeologists to question whether foul play was involved.
King Tutankhamen ruled about 3,300 years ago and is believed to have been the 12th ruler of ancient Egypt's 18th dynasty. He ascended to the throne at about the age of 8 and diedaround
1323 B.C., at age 17. Lupton thinks most of the hubbub over Tut's death has to do with the age at which the young King died, and a book that was published in the 1990s by Bob Brier, an Egyptologist at Long Island University .
Basically, the speculation was along the lines of, "if he died young . . . prematurely . . .
he was killed," Lupton said. The results of the scans are to be announced later this month.
Lives, deaths of 'regular' folk
Lupton's own work on mummy imaging has focused on trying to understand how the more "regular" folk lived in ancient Egypt.
He has scanned the Milwaukee museum's two resident - non-noble and non-royal - mummies and is seeking money to use CT scans on mummies buried in a large graveyard at Akhmin,
Egypt. The burials date to the Ptolemaic period, between 300 and 30 B.C. He's trying to understand how these people lived, how they died - if the CT scans reveal anything obvious - and how they were preserved.
One of the things Lupton has discovered from earlier CT scans and X-rays is that ancient Egyptians
suffered from many of the ailments that plague modern people. Serious injuries - bone breaks and arthritis - as well as scoliosis of the spine and arteriosclerosis were not strangers to these people.
Neither were toothaches.
Unlike modern people who are often riddled with cavities - a result of sugar in the diet - ancient Egyptians' teeth were commonly worn down.
This was probably the result of a diet that required a lot more grinding than do yogurt and Wonder bread. And sand may have played a role, too. Indeed, it is quite possible the
food of the Egyptians was unintentionally peppered with sand, Lupton said. Evidence of pneumoconiosis - a chronic respiratory disease caused by inhaling sand into the lungs - in many of the mummies supports this conclusion.
But the Egyptians were not sitting ducks when it came to their teeth, Lupton said.
Indeed, there's evidence of dental wiring and bridge work.Another promising aspect of newer CT-scanning technology, Lupton said, is the ability to create three-dimensional imaging and 3-D replicas.
This will allow forensic scientists to "rebuild" and flesh out mummies, reconstructing the faces and physiques of the
now-shriveled and withered dead, Lupton said. Yet, despite the promising information a CT scan can give to Lupton and the Egyptian archaeologists, DNA would be the most powerful tool for understanding how Tut and others died, Lupton said.
For now, however, researchers are forbidden to take samples from Tut or any of the mummies in Egypt, Lupton said.
Therefore, as long as that rule remains enforced, the mysteries surrounding the life and death of Tut may remain entombed.
JSO Online 20/01/05
Tutankhamun Examined in a CT Scanner
Siemens experts have been examining the mummified remains of the pharaoh Tutankhamun in a CT scanner - with unprecedented precision. Together with the Egyptian chief archaeologist, Dr. Zahi Hawass, they want to determine the cause of Tutankhamun’s death more than 3,000 years ago. It was the first time
since the mummy’s discovery in 1922 that it had been removed from its resting place in the Valley of the Kings near Luxor. In 1968 the first X-ray analysis of the head revealed that the pharaoh might have died as a result of a severe blow.
The Siemens experts in Egypt report that the analysis of the mummy proved very difficult. A living patient can assume different bodily postures, but that’s of course impossible for the fragile mummy. The condition of the mummy is very bad: It was supposedly damaged when its discoverers removed jewelry from the body. In its wooden box, the body was taken to a specially outfitted truckequipped with a Somatom Emotion 6 CT scanner which is a donation from Siemens and the National Geographic Society.
The scanner, which is also used in clinical practice, contains special software that reduces the radiation dose as low as possible to avoid further damage to the mummy. In addition, the
experts and technicians wore surgical masks and gloves to protect the mummy. Including preparations, the process lasted about two and one-half hours, though the scan itself took only five minutes. Overall, 1.700 images have been taken. The images of the skull have a resolution of 0.5 millimeters, while the
resolution of the rest of the body is one millimeter. The experts are now evaluating the images, and the initial results are expected by the end of January.
In addition to Tutankhamun, the scientists examined many other mummies from the Valley of the Kings. Some of them had to be scanned with death masks or
in wrappings, which might cover previously undiscovered jewelry. This and the resin used during mummification may lower the quality of the images. A mummy previously thought to be that of a female turned out to actually be the remains of a man. Another unexpected discovery: A mummy thought to be the body
of a 70-year-old man turned out to be the mummy of a boy who was about seven years old at the time of his death. The Siemens experts expect surprises from Tutankhamun also
Eighty-three after its discovery Tutankhamun's mummy may at last be revealing its secrets.
Sunset in the Valley of the Kings. All is well on the west bank. It is, as usual, silent, a haven of peace and quiet. And then, last Wednesday, the silence was broken by the arrival of a van equipped with a CT-scanning
machine. Its purpose was to find out exactly why Tutankhamun, that most celebrated of pharaohs, died.
The area was crowded with dozens of workers, scientists, technicians, archaeologists and restorers. And they were all waiting for one thing. Would the CT scan finally resolve the mystery surrounding
Tutankhamun's death? As workers stepped out of the tomb carrying the blackened mummy on a wooden box a ferocious wind began to blow, delaying the procession towards the van. And when the mummy finally reached the van, and the linen wrappings had been removed, the CT scan inexplicably stopped
working for more than two hours. "It seems the ancient Egyptian gods are very angry. They are sending their curse from eternity," said Am Mohamed, one of the workers.
Even Zahi Hawass, secretary general of the Supreme Council of Antiquities (SCA), seemed perturbed by events, jocularly invoking the
legendary curse of the pharaohs to explain the many glitches. "And," he told Al-Ahram Weekly, "we almost had a car accident while driving towards Luxor's west bank."
The mummy was examined by a team of archaeologists who found the body in poor condition while the head, which is cut off at the neck, was
well preserved. "I was upset by what I saw," said Hawass, who believes that Howard Carter, who discovered the tomb in 1922, was responsible for the deterioration. It was his heavy handed attempts to remove the Pharaoh's celebrated golden mask that led to the decapitation. Removing other jewellery and funeral
adornments led to the breaking of the pelvis and the separation of the arms and legs from the young king's torso. Carter and his team then reconstructed the dismembered body in a sand tray, arranging it carefully and rejoining the hands and feet to the limbs with resin.
When the CT scan was finally working 1,700 images were taken over 15- minutes in the hope that they might shed light on why Tutankhamun died at such an early age?
Radiologist Hani Abdel-Rahman, who supervised the scan, said that the skull showed no signs of having been hit with a heavy object, a thesis first proposed following the study of x- rays at
Liverpool University in 1968. According to Hawass the scan revealed no more than fragments of bone inside the skull and an area that appeared slightly thicker than the rest, neither of which constitutes conclusive evidence that the pharaoh died because of a blow to the head.
"The CT scan -- which marks the opening of a five year project planned by the ministry of culture to examine and study mummies -- will provide a detailed three dimensional view of the mummy in order that it might be accurately restored," said Hawass, who revealed that, should all go as planned, the results will be announced in three weeks.
After scanning the 3,000 year old mummy Egyptian scientists were able to produce, for the first time, a digital image of the face of Tutankhamun.
"These images reveal just what Tutankhamun looked like," said Sabri Abdel-Aziz, head of the Ancient Egyptian Department at the SCA. He also told the Weekly that while
the electronic device is in the Valley of the Kings scans of other mummies -- including that found in Amenhotep II's tomb which British archaeologist Joan Fletcher has argued may be Nefertiti -- will be made in an attempt to identify them.
The mummy of an unknown child found in king Tutmosis IV's tomb and a second mummy from King Seti I's tomb, are among those that will be scanned. But, said Abdel-Aziz, the mummy thought by many Egyptologists to be that of Queen Hatshepsut, buried in tomb number 60 in the valley, would be excluded from the project owing to its poor state of preservation.
Al Ahram Weekly
Especialistas inician la restauración de la momia de Tutankamón
El sarcófago dorado de Tutankamón, el faraón del antiguo Egipto cuya tumba
fue descubierta por el inglés Howard Carter en 1922, será sometido a una
"cuidadosa restauración" a partir de la semana próxima, informaron
las autoridades de Cultura egipcias, informó ANSA.El anuncio fue hecho después
de que la momia fue sometida a una tomografía computada, en un intento por
comprender cómo ocurrió el deceso de Tutankamón, quien ascendió al trono
cuando era muy joven y murió sin haber cumplido 20 años. Asimismo, el
anuncio de la restauración sucede a críticas a Carter, acusado de haber
causado daños a la momia.
La momia de Tutankamón sometida a una tomografía... y vuelve el mito de la maldición
Los investigadores toman 1.700 imágenes en los escasos 15 minutos en los que el cuerpo permaneció fuera de su sarcófago.
(Diario de Cádiz, Agencias) En la oscuridad de la noche del miércoles, un equipo de investigadores en Luxor sacó brevemente la momia del faraón Tutankamón de su sarcófago, para
someter al rey por primera vez a una tomografía computada. Así pretenden establecer definitivamente qué edad llegó a cumplir el faraón, que aparentemente ascendió al trono a los ocho años y gobernó, de acuerdo a las investigaciones, unos diez años (1319-1309 a.C.).
Además, los investigadores quieren saber si murió por un accidente o si se trató de un asesinato.
La noche del miércoles, cuando el cuerpo momificado fue llevado desde la tumba en el Valle de los Reyes hasta el tomógrafo, se produjo una intensa tormenta de arena y comenzó a llover, algo poco habitual en esa región de Egipto.
"Es la maldición del faraón", murmuraron algunos de los presentes asustados.
La leyenda de "la maldición de Tutankamón" surgió en los años 20 del siglo pasado, cuando varios miembros de un equipo de arqueólogos liderados por el británico Howard Carter murieron poco después de la apertura de la tumba en 1922.
Más adelante, sin embargo, se atribuyeron las muertes tempranas de los investigadores a un peligroso moho.
El jefe de la oficina egipcia de arqueología, Zahi Hawwas, dijo ayer en El Cairo que la momia está bastante dañada, entre otras cosas porque Carter retiró en su momento sin mucho cuidado los adornos de
oro que la cubrían. Sólo la cabeza está bien preservada, añadió. La prueba se realizó durante la noche para evitar las molestias que hubieran de la tomografía computada, que después de las protestas de arqueólogos y habitantes de Luxor no se realizó como estaba previsto en El Cairo sino directamente en el
Valle de los Reyes, se publicarán en tres semanas. En total, en 15 minutos se tomaron 1.700 imágenes del faraón. El tomógrafo fue puesto a disposición de Egipto por el consorcio Siemens y la National Geographic Society.
La última vez que había sido analizada la momia de Tutankamón fue en 1986. Según
las autoridades egipcias, ahora sólo queda una momia del Valle de los Reyes que no fue sometida a una tomografía computerizada.
Sólo una momia, de la que se presume que es la reina Hatshepsut, aún no ha sido analizada, dado que no puede ser sacada del sarcófago sin sufrir daños.
Hawwas destacó que no permitirá la realización de pruebas de ADN a la momia de Tutankamón, que tras esta breve "excursión" volvió a ser colocada en su tumba.
Los investigadores insertaron en el sarcófago un aparato que garantizará en el futuro las condiciones ideales de temperatura y humedad. Los expertos comenzarán ya la
semana que viene con la restauración. El tesoro del faraón-niño está expuesto actualmente en la ciudad alemana de Bonn.
¿La tomografía de Tutankamón liberará la "Maldición del Faraón"?
EL CAIRO (Reuters) - El egiptólogo Zahi Hawass, quien supervisó esta semana la primera tomografía computerizada de la momia del niño faraón Tutankamón, dijo que la experiencia sugiere que sería imprudente descartar la legendaria "maldición de los faraones".
La tomografía computerizada (TC) produjo imágenes tridimensionales de rayos X de los restos del cuerpo del faraón."No puedo descartar la leyenda de la maldición porque hoy ocurrieron muchas cosas. Casi tenemos un accidente con el automóvil, el viento sopló en el Valle de los Reyes y la computadora de la TC dejó de funcionar durante dos horas",
dijo Hawass en comentarios grabados en video que su oficina difundió el viernes.
Un equipo de egipcios realizó el miércoles por la tarde la TC en el Valle de los Reyes, cerca de la ciudad de Luxor, en el sur del país, en un intento por determinar la causa de la muerte de Tutankamón, uno de los grandes misterios
de la historia del Antiguo Egipto. A los expertos les llevará tres semanas analizar las imágenes.Esta ha sido la cuarta vez que se ha examinado en detalle el cuerpo momificado del joven faraón, desde que el arqueólogo Howard Carter encontró su tumba intacta en el valle del Nilo en 1922, en uno de los
descubrimientos más importantes de todos los tiempos. Los arqueólogos abrieron por última vez la tumba en 1968, cuando un examen de rayos X reveló una astilla de hueso en su cráneo. Eso incrementó las especulaciones de que el faraón había muerto por un golpe en la cabeza, y su alto sacerdote y el jefe
del ejército fueron señalados como los principales sospechosos. Tutankamón gobernó durante un período confuso y complicado en la historia de Egipto, que comenzó poco tiempo después de la muerte del herético faraón monoteísta Akenatón en el 1362 antes de Cristo, quien pudo haber sido su padre. Falleció
justo cuando llegaba a su vida adulta. El misterio ha rodeado a Tutankamón desde 1922. Lord Carnarvon, patrocinador de Carter y uno de los primeros en entrar a la tumba, murió poco tiempo después por la infección de una picadura de mosquito.
Los periódicos de aquel entonces dijeron que Carter había liberado una maldición faraónica que mató a Carnarvon y a otras personas vinculadas con el descubrimiento.
En el pasado, los científicos sugirieron que una enfermedad que permanecía adormecida en la tumba pudo haber matado al aristócrata británico.
Hawass, jefe del Consejo Supremo de Antigüedades del gobiernoegipcio, dijo que la momia estaba en muy malas condiciones debido a las herramientas que Carter utilizó para separar la máscara dorada, uno de los tesoros más conocidos que se encontraron en la tumba.
La momia ha permanecido en la tumba mientras que todos los objetos funerarios fueron llevados
al Museo Egipcio en El Cairo. "La momia necesita preservación. Necesitamos conservar la temperatura interior del sarcófago y también devolver la máscara de oro", dijo Hawass.
Hawass, conocido en todo el mundo por sus entusiastas apariciones televisivas en documentales sobre el Antiguo Egipto, habló con
anterioridad sobre las experiencias tenebrosas que tuvo mientras excavaba tumbas o retiraba momias de sarcófagos.
"Creo que todavía deberíamos creer en la maldición de los faraones", dijo en relación con la tumba de Tutankamón.*.
Examen radiológicos de los restos acusan al descubridor de la tumba de
Tutankamon de dañar la momia
El secretario general del Consejo Supremo de Antiguedades (CSA) de Egipto, el
arqueólogo Zahi Hawas, ha acusado a Howard Carter, quien en 1920 descubrió
la tumba de Tutankamon, de haber dañado irreparablemente la momia del faraón.
Hawas hizo la acusación tras abrir el sarcófago dorado del rey -que permanecía
sellado desde que fuera inspeccionado en 1986 por una misiónarqueológica
británica-, para someter a un examen radiológico los restos del famoso
soberano. Según precisó Hawas en un comunicado tras el examen, "solo la
cabeza de la momia está en buen estado, ya que el resto del cuerpo se
encuentra en muy malas condiciones debido a los intentos de Carter de remover
la mascara de oro de la cara" del cadáver. Hawas responsabilizó también
a Carter de "abusar de la momia, al introducir en ella hierros calientes
para tratar de localizar las piedras preciosas y los amuletos que habían sido
colocados entre los vendajes que envolvían el cuerpo". Faraón que murió
joven tras un mandato que pasó sin pena ni gloria, Tutankamon debe la fama a
que su ajuar fúnebre permanece intacto, ya fue el único monarca enterrado en
el Valle de los Reyes, -en el Alto Egipto-, cuya tumba no fue saqueada, por lo
que el descubrimiento de Carter causó sensación en su época. Desde
entonces, el mobiliario y el tesoro encontrado por Carter en el enterramiento
figuran entre los principales atractivos del Museo Egipcio de El Cairo, donde
son visitados a diario por miles de turistas, incluida la famosa mascara de
oro a la que alude Hawas. Conocido por sus acerbas criticas al expolio por
extranjeros del patrimonio histórico del Antiguo Egipto -lo que le ha valido
reputación de nacionalista furibundo-, el secretario general del CSA está
considerado la máxima autoridad local en egiptología. El examen por Hawas de
la momia de Tutankamon tenía en principio el propósito de desentrañar el
origen de la leyenda negra que rodea a ese faraón desde que varias de las
personas que entraron con Carter hace mas de 80 año en la tumba murieron poco
después por causas aparentemente inexplicables hasta la fecha.
El Mundo digital
Hawas to Al-Gomhouria: Tutankhamen mummy won't be moved from Luxor
Zahi Hawas, Secretary-General of the Supreme Council for Antiquities said that the mummy of King Tutankhamen won't be moved from the Valley of the Kings in Luxor to the Egyptian museum in Cairo.
In statements to Al-Gomhouria newspaper, Hawas said that restoration and ray treatment would be conducted on the mummy to protect it from any risks.
Hawas said that the mummy would not be examined with DNA.
- A la momia de Tutanjamon sólo se se le realizará una tomografía computerizada (CT Scan) y no un análisis de
Autopsy for King Tut?
Can archaeologists actually find out how Tutankhamun really died? When British explorer Howard Carter stumbled upon the magnificent treasures
in Tutankhamun's tomb in 1922, the entire world agreed that it was the most splendiferous discovery
ever unearthed. Over time, however, the find produced more than lustrous treasures.
Archaeologists were perplexed by questions like: Who was Tutankhamun? Was he the son or the brother of the monotheistic Pharaoh Akhnaten? Why did his
tomb contain all these treasures, despite his having died so young? How, in any case, did he actually die? Was he killed at 18 years of age, or did he
suffer from some fatal disease? Eighty-two years later, some of these mysteries may be resolved, now
that Tutankhamun's mummy will soon be subjected to a CT scan. For the first time
since it was discovered, the mummy will be given an intense medical check-up, in the hope that something will be learnt about the secret behind
the boy king's early death, said Supreme Council of Antiquities (SCA) Secretary-General Zahi Hawass. The tests will also determine if he had been
suffering from disease.
The original plan was to remove the mummy from its burial grounds in Luxor's Valley of the Kings to the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. Because of the mummy's
fragility, however, the medical check-up and studies will now be executed in situ.
Carter's attempts to remove the famous golden painted mask from the mummy's face were the main cause of its deterioration. He smashed it with a sharp
tool, and then allowed it to burn under the area's hot sun in order to detach it.
Eight years ago, a Tut enthusiast hired two retired Scotland Yard detectives to investigate the cause of the boy king's death. After exploring Ancient
Egyptian sources, the duo was unable to come to any conclusions. Four years ago, a Japanese mission offered to conduct
a DNA analysis on Tutankhamun's mummy in an attempt to learn more about his lineage; the SCA
rejected the request on the grounds that it represented a threat to the mummy's fragile condition, and would -- in any case -- prove futile. This
week, Hawass again said DNA analysis was out of question because it would not lead to anything.
Next month's probe into Tutankhamun's mummy will be filmed by IMAX, the world- famous wide screen film company. The resulting movie will be screened
at the Egyptian Museum as well as at the visitor centre scheduled to be built at the entrance
of the Valley of the Kings on Luxor's west bank. Culture Minister Farouk Hosni said the project was one of many being planned
to study Pharaonic mummies and learn more about their secrets.
Fuente: Al Ahram Weekly
Egipto.- La momia de Tutankamon se quedará donde fue encontrada y no será
trasladada al museo de El Cairo
Redacción - (Noticias) - 23/11/2004
El secretario general del Consejo Supremo Egipcio de Antigüedades (CSAE), Zahi Hawas, ha dado marcha atrás en su decisión de trasladar la momia de
Tutankamon al museo egipcio de El Cairo y declaró ayer lunes que ésta será examinada en
el lugar de su descubrimiento, en el Alto Egipto. "La momia no será trasladada al Museo de El Cairo", declaró Hawas ante la
comisión parlamentaria de Cultura, Medios y Turismo. "Un comité que reúen a 60 arqueólogos egipcios ha sido formado
para examinar la momia y restaurarla, llegado el caso, así como otras momias, sin la ayuda de
expertos o de restauradores extranjeros", afirmó. Hawas había declarado hace una semana que el CSAE había decidido "la
trasferencia de la momia al museo Egipcio, situado en el centro de El Cairo, para su examen" y afirmó, en declaraciones a la prensa egipcia, que "un
equipo de expertos estadounidenses participará en el examen de la momia del faraón más famoso" así como expertos
egipcios. La tumba de Tutankamon fue descubierta en 1922 en el valle de los Reyes,
cerca de Luxor (Alto Egipto) por el arqueólogo británico Howard Carter. La cabeza de la momia fue separada del resto del cuerpo y algunas partes se
rompieron cuando Carter intentó arrancar la máscara de oro que cubría el rostro del faraón.
(La noticia ha sido difundida por Europa Press)
Miscelánea por fechas
Reconstrucción del rostro de Tutanjamon
Proyecto Djehuty - Los Enigmas de Luxor
Análisis de la momia de Tutanjamon (Tutankhamon)
Especial momia de Nefertiti
Nota: Las noticias sin
origen referenciado en las mismas, provienen siempre de http://www.uk.sis.gov.eg/online/html1/